Web Excursions 2021-11-08

Early Civilizations Had It All Figured Out by newyorker.com

  • Two of Bill Gates’s favorite soup-to-nuts books of the past decade are Steven Pinker’s “The Better Angels of Our Nature” and Yuval Noah Harari’s “Sapiens.”

    • The appetite for such stories seems indiscriminate—tales of deterioration and tales of improvement are frequently consumed by the same people.

    • Perhaps what readers like Gates find valuable in these books

      • has less to do with the purported shape and direction of history

      • than with the broad assurance that history has a shape and a direction.

  • “The Dawn of Everything: A New History of Humanity” (Farrar, Straus & Giroux), is a profuse and antic account of how we came to take that old narrative for granted and why we might be better off if we let it go.

  • Viewed closely, the course of human history resists our favored schemata.

    • Hunter-gatherer communities seem to have experimented with various forms of farming as side projects thousands of years before we have any evidence of cities.

    • Even after urban centers developed, there was nothing like an ineluctable relationship between cities, technology, and domination.

  • Çatalhöyük isn’t the only site that calls into question the presumption

    • that the Neolithic era was patterned on a single civilizational kit.

    • Graeber and Wengrow report that some cities thrived long before they showed signs of hierarchical systems—

      • such as temples and palaces—and some never developed them at all.

    • “In others, centralized power seems to appear and then disappear,” they write.

      • “It would seem that the mere fact of urban life does not, necessarily, imply any form of political organization.”

  • If cities didn’t lead to states, what did?

    • Modern ethnographic treatments of Indigenous communities describe an astonishing level of social plasticity

  • one of the first things you learn in an introductory course in anthropology or archeology is that pat appeals to cultural evolution are retrograde and silly.

    • Critiques of grand narratives have been important to the modern self-image of these fields—in part as penance for having once been happy to serve the priorities of empire, peddling “civilization” as a gift to the “primitives.”

    • One consequence, however, is that wholesale synthetic accounts of human history tend to be written in the extravagantly roughshod mode of Harari’s “Sapiens” or Jared Diamond’s “Guns, Germs, and Steel.”

  • anthropology was reduced to “spiteful ethnography,”

    • it put itself in the business of “disapproving of intellectual constructions

    • but not of creating, or perhaps even of understanding, any.”

  • If something did go terribly wrong in human history—and given the current state of the world, it’s hard to deny something did—

    • then perhaps it began to go wrong precisely when people started losing that freedom to imagine and enact other forms of social existence.”

  • [The framework of historical narrative that deems] history as a story of material progress recasts indigenous critics as innocent children of nature,

    • whose views on freedom were a mere side effect of their uncultivated way of life and could not possibly offer a serious challenge to contemporary social thought


Stop Making Students Use Eclipse | Nora Codes by nora.codes

  • Most IDEs primarily serve two purposes for students.

    • First, in a Java-focused curriculum, it insulates the student from the javac command line program, and the command line environment itself.

    • Second, it catches some basic mistakes and allows the student to defer learning about the finnicky language requirements

      • that aren’t deemed core to the curriculum, like imports and file naming requirements.

  • What they can’t do, unless they’ve figured it out on their own, is operate a computer outside of the confines of the IDE they’ve been taught.

  • In none of the curricula I’ve seen, through personal experience or reading syllabi provided by other students,

    • is there a place for students to get past the myriad of barriers

    • that constitute the use of a computer in the modern day.

    • Students who use Windows aren’t taught that, while their file system is case-insensitive, not all filesystems are.

      • They probably aren’t taught that a “file system” is a concept until a 300-level operating systems course.

  • Students who use Mac OS aren’t taught what the .DS_Store directory is, or why it’s irrelevant to their project submissions.

  • Students learning Java don’t know that javac is their compiler and java their virtual machine, at least until they take a course in compilers.

  • Nobody focuses on things like ASCII, Unicode, and UTF-8, or on how programs interoperate, or on how to share and distribute programs that students write.

  • Introductory CS curricula focus on abstract ideas of programming, and use IDEs to accomplish that.

  • Why is this a problem?

    • “Software is nothing but the details.”

    • When students don’t understand what a file is, or haven’t ever edited text in anything but Microsoft Word and don’t realize they can edit code outside of an IDE3,

      • they will not be able to do the crucial work of self-directed learning that is a hallmark of all computer science success.

    • When students have only ever programmed in Java using some bespoke learning library provided by their professor,

      • it will take them much longer than necessary to figure out other languages, other libraries, and other approaches.

    • In a field that moves as fast as this one does, that’s a very serious problem.

    • It also undermines their ability to learn in a classroom setting going forward.

      • Among my fellow students, those who merely do what is expected of them

    • Most importantly, though, it limits the ability of their peers to learn.

    • Students need to know how to use computers before they can program them in a serious way.

  • Moving forward - or backwards, or sideways?

    • Provide a standardized environment - as a VM, perhaps, or using something like repl.it or ideone - perhaps a similar software designed specifically for education.

    • Use a language that teaches the fundamentals of the paradigm you’re interested in, like Scheme or Python. (Please, please not Java.)

    • Provide support for students who are interested in doing their own thing.

    • We need to teach students about computers themselves.

      • After the first foray into programming, take time to teach students about the UNIX command line.

    • Show students how things they’re familiar with - graphical file managers, for instance - interact with these new command line skills, and how their programming languages interact with those.

    • Commit to teaching a standardized environment that all students have access to.

      • Ubuntu LTS is great for this, because people with their own computer can run it in a VM and the school can provide computers, and adventurous Windows users can use WSL.

  • A commenter on Lobste.rs pointed out that there are some great resources from MIT around learning tooling and build systems: The Missing Semester of Your CS Education


Ask HN: How is the “metaverse” concept different from the Second Life boom?

Does anybody remember the Second Life boom when companies were trying to snap up linden-land and set up shop online? That failed, and I can't help but feel like the 'metaverse' concept being marketed to us is that, but with VR helmets and advertising strapped on.

Shank:

The pitch from Meta and with AR/VR is that with the ability to use 3D space, you can actually turn Second Life-style virtual worlds into something useful with actual tangible benefits.

BoorishBears:

  • I'm shocked people are taking "Meta" at face value.

  • To me it's a way to signal to outsiders that Facebook is still cool and hip. That's it.

  • Now when recruiting they can play the Meta-not-Facebook angle.

  • Now if they can pad earnings calls with the amazing success the metaverse is seeing (so what if it's losing us money, that's the future!)

  • It's like an inverse Alphabet. Where Alphabet silently serves as an umbrella for moonshots, Meta is a moonshot that's an umbrella for boring old Facebook

abvdasker:

  • Second Life allowed for a lot of the NSFW content and interactions that people tend to enjoy both in entertainment and in real life (this is also true of VRChat to some extent).

  • Metaverse will be a sanitized, sterile project for children.

  • Fundamentally the people like Zuckerberg responsible for its execution do not understand what people want, which is why Metaverse has no chance of success.