Web Excursions 2021-06-08

Apple’s Craig Federighi on WWDC’s new privacy features

  • iCloud Private Relay uses a dual-hop architecture.

  • When you navigate to a website through Safari, iCloud Private Relay takes your IP address,

    • which it needs to connect you to the website you want to go to, and the URL of that site.

    • But it encrypts the URL so not even Apple can see what website you are visiting.

    • Your IP and encrypted destination URL then travels to an intermediary relay station run by a third-party trusted partner.

    • Apple would not name these trusted partners,

      • but says the company is working with some of the largest content providers out there.

  • Before getting to this relay station, however, your IP address is anonymized and randomized,

    • so the relay partner can’t identify you or your device.

    • Then at the relay station, the destination URL is unencrypted,

    • so the third-party provider can send you on to the website you want to go to.

  • Because of this dual-hop architecture, neither Apple nor the relay station knows both who you are and where you are going.

    • Apple knows who you are (because you are using iCloud Private Relay), but it doesn’t know where you’re browsing.

    • Its third-party partner knows where you are browsing–but not who you are.

  • VPNs are a technology that has sought to provide some of those protections, but they do involve putting a lot of trust in a single centralized entity: the VPN provider.

    • most internet users aren’t in a position to gauge the trustworthiness of any particular VPN

  • iCloud Private Relay will only work in Safari. That’s a bummer for anyone who uses another browser

  • The corporate traffic will route through the corporate VPN, while all other traffic will route through iCloud Private Relay.

  • [The author] asked Federighi if he can confirm these figures [that almost 95% of iPhone users opting out of app tracking].

    • Federighi declined to do so, saying Apple doesn’t have official numbers.

    • However, he says that when Apple designed ATT, it wasn’t necessarily hoping that most users would opt out of tracking.

    • “The key for us is that users have a choice.”


Daring Fireball: App Store: The Schiller Cut

  • Apple makes record-shattering amounts of revenue and profit.

    • But they don’t make every bit of money they can from every single opportunity.

    • To do so would be counterproductive — to squeeze too tightly on every possible source of revenue would dent the company’s brand.

    • To name one seemingly inconsequential example: they do not sell t-shirts or other souvenir-type logo paraphernalia in their retail stores, other than at the visitor center at Apple Park.

    • They choose to leave that money on the table.

  • Most developers I know think that the only thing Apple turns upside down for developers is the proverbial couch,

    • out of which Apple seemingly wants to shake every last nickel of spare change it can.

  • To my knowledge no company in history has ever gotten into antitrust hot water over a side business so comparatively small to its overall business. Apple doesn’t need this.

  • I think Apple’s senior leadership — Cook in particular — truly does believe that Apple has earned every dollar it generates from third-party software in the App Store, and that their policies in place are just and fair.

  • I don’t think the developers are wrong, but even if they are wrong, it’s not good for Apple that they’re so unhappy, and feel so aggrieved.


Apple Style Guide > Writing Inclusively

Guidance about inclusive writing may change over time, so check back for updates. Also keep in mind that inclusive language may vary slightly in different locales, so you may need to adapt the principles here to the unique needs of your language or region.

  • General guidelines

    • Think inclusively.

      • Be respectful of those who may receive words differently from how you intended them.

    • Research words.

      • Some common expressions (like grandfathered in) arose from oppressive or exclusionary contexts.

    • Consider the context.

    • Avoid terms that are violent, oppressive, or ableist.

      • kill, hang, master, slave, sanity check

      • In general, it’s a good idea to avoid describing software or hardware using human or biological attributes

    • Avoid idioms and colloquial expressions.

      • fall through the cracks, on the same page, backseat driver

      • Make it more difficult to localize.

    • Don’t use color to convey positive or negative qualities.

      • blacklist, white hat hacker, or red team hacker

      • Use colors only to describe actual colors

    • Err on the side of caution.

  • Inclusive representation

    • Use diverse names as examples.

      • Include names that reflect a variety of ethnicities and genders.

      • Consider non-Western-style name structures

    • Avoid biases and stereotypes.

      • Bias is a tendency to think and behave in ways that are favorable (or unfavorable) to certain people or communities: Text[ual] or image[] to depict people in certain occupations or settings; holidays; examples that reflect primarily an affluent lifestyle.

      • A stereotype is a fixed belief about people or groups based on identifying characteristics: family == woman + man + (biological) children

  • Gender identity

    • Avoid binary representations of gender when you can reword using gender-neutral language.

      • s/men and women/people of diverse backgrounds/g

    • It’s fine to refer to specific genders if the context requires it.

    • Use gender-neutral pronouns: s/(he|she)/they/g

    • Use gender-neutral titles and honorifics when appropriate: Mx.

  • Writing about disability

    • When you write about people with disabilities, keep the focus on talents, skills, and accomplishments

    • You may not even need to mention someone’s disability unless it’s essential to the content

    • Put people first.

      • Blind people -> People who are blind or have low vision

      • A wheelchair-bound person -> A person (in|who use) a wheelchair

      • Members of some disability communities may consider their disabilities to be part of their identity [and would actually prefer being described as “deaf” or so]

    • Acknowledge a wide range of disability.

      • blind: born/low vision/peripheral version?

    • Write about people with disabilities as you would about anyone.

      • Focus on their life, their personality and interests, or what they’ve created or accomplished

      • Avoid: overcome, brave, courageous, or inspiring

    • Avoid language that refers to using specific senses.

      • “see” a message (referring to the use of specific senses) -> a message “appears” (referring to what happens)

    • Avoid idioms that send negative messages about disability:

      • crazy 疯了, fell on deaf ears 装聋作哑, turn a blind eye to

      • …But some [commonly understood] phrases and idioms are OK.